Research 154: PALM: A Personal Activity–Location Model of Exposure to Air Pollution

Summary: The Personal Activity–Location Model (PALM) project investigated methods for modelling an individual’s personal exposure to air pollution taking into account variations in their activity and location.

EPA Research 154: PALM Air Pollution thumbnail

Published: 2015

ISBN: 978-1-84095-594-1

Pages: 40

Filesize: 6,102 KB

Format: pdf


The adverse health effects of air pollution are well established, but previous studies on this topic have generally considered the average pollution concentration in an area rather than the specific concentration experienced by an individual.

Variations in the locations (both indoors and outdoors) occupied by individuals and the activities in which they participate lead to variations in their exposure to pollution, in the uptake of air pollutants in their lungs, and in consequent health effects.

The development of a methodology for modelling this variation in personal exposure offers a valuable alternative to expensive personal monitoring. The Personal Activity–Location Model (PALM) project investigated methods for modelling an individual’s personal exposure to air pollution taking into account variations in their activity and location.

The project produced three different models:

  1. A statistical model of the personal exposure of individuals in Dublin;
  2. An improved version of the Indoor Air Pollutant Passive Exposure Model (IAPPEM); and
  3. A set of dispersion models embedded in ArcGIS for ambient air quality in the Dublin area (PALMGIS).

All of these models are available for further use.