Mobile phone handsets are the most significant source of public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) as their exposure is typically much higher than that from other RF-EMF sources, such as mobile phone base stations or masts. This occurs particularly when mobile phones are used in contact with the body such as when making a phone call with the phone held to your ear.
What is known about the health effects from use of mobile phones?
There has been extensive research performed on the potential health effects from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) such as those used by mobile phone handsets and base stations. Based on available evidence up to 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), a WHO agency, classified RF-EMF as possibly carcinogenic or group 2B. This classification was mainly based on evidence from studies involving long-term, heavy use of mobile phone handsets using 1G, 2G & 3G technologies. Although more studies have been carried out since then, this classification has not been reviewed by IARC to date.
How can I reduce my exposure from mobile phones?
Recommendations to reduce exposure from mobile phones have been issued by WHO, the Chief Medical Officer and several public health agencies worldwide, such as Public Health England. These recommendations are conservative to take account of possible health effects.
These recommendations include the following:
What exposure limits apply to mobile phones?
The rate at which energy emitted from a mobile phone is absorbed in the body is called the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR). The unit of SAR is watts per kilogram (W/kg) and each phone has a specific SAR value. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP [Link: https://www.icnirp.org/]) recommends a SAR limit of 2 W/kg for localised exposure of the head and trunk, such as that from mobile phones in contact with the body.
How does the exposure from mobile phones compare to that from phone masts?
The exposure levels from a mobile phone in contact with the body can reach 100 to 400 times the levels of the typical exposure one receives from mobile phone masts or base stations. The exact level will depend on:
Newer handsets tend to operate more efficiently, allow using newer technologies and use less power when compared to older phones. Therefore, newer phones using more modern technologies with good coverage tend to give rise to the lowest level of exposure.
The level of exposure from a typical mobile phone (e.g., SAR=1 W/kg) making a call at the ear with low coverage can be around 100 V/m. This is 100 times higher than the typical exposure level of the public from mobile phone base stations or masts, which is usually around 1 V/m. This value includes the contribution of all available technologies used by several antennas on a mast (i.e., 2G, 3G, 4G).
What influences the exposure from a mobile phone mast?
The level of RF-EMF from a mast depends on the distance from the mast as well as the number of antennas on the mast and the technologies being used. Each mast typically comprises several antennas using one or more technologies. Each antenna/technology contributes a small proportion to the overall exposure of the public to the mast, typically around 1 V/m. The average level from a 5G antenna is similar to the level from an antenna using 3G or 4G (i.e., around 0.2 V/m) while the level from a 2G antenna is slightly higher (i.e., around 0.4 V/m).
What does the IARC group 2B classification mean?
The IARC group 2B classification means that the evidence for the substance or physical agent causing cancer is limited, and further research is needed. Other products such as pickled food, aloe vera and dry-cleaning agents are also classified as 2B. See Irish Cancer Society for a further description of the 2B classification in the context of mobile phones.