What is BAT?

BAT (Best Available Techniques):

This is the most effective  technique available to a particular industry sector to achieve a high general level of protection of the environment. All EPA licensed Industrial Emissions sites are required to apply BAT. Applying BAT will lead to a reduction in emissions, energy consumption and improve water conservation. 


What is BREF?

BREF (Best Available Technique Reference Document):

BREFs are drawn up for defined activities (e.g. Food, Drink and Milk Industries) and describe in detail applied techniques, present emissions, consumption levels, best available techniques and BAT conclusions. The European IPPC Bureau (EIPPCB) organises and co-ordinates the exchange of information between members states/non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the EU Commission that leads to the drawing up and review of BREFs. BREFs are adopted by Ireland and are used by the EPA as the reference for setting permit conditions for Industrial Emissions licences.

BAT Conclusions:

Section of BAT Reference Document (BREF) laying down conclusions on best available techniques, their descriptions, emission levels associated with BAT, associated monitoring and associated consumption levels.


What is a CID?

Commission Implementing Decisions:

Once a BREF is reviewed and adopted, a Commission Implementing Decision (CID) (listing the BAT conclusions) is published for each BREF. The adoption of CID (incl. list of BAT conclusions)is mandatory in the permitting/licensing process.

The Commission Implementing Decision(CID) for example the food, drink and milk industries was published on 11th November 2019 by the European Commission. The Agency's role is to ensure that the relevant industry apply all relevant BAT conclusions as soon as practicable but not more than 4 years after the Commission Implementing Decision is published. Licence Conditions and/or Schedules must be updated or reconsidered within 4 years of publication of a relevant CID. The overall objective of reconsidering and updating permit conditions is to ensure that the operation of installations is in line with the latest developments in the best available techniques.

A Commission Implementing Decision (CID) for BAT conclusions will be published for each BREF reviewed under the IED.

Website to inform you of current progress of all BAT Reference Documents (BREFS) and Commission Implementing Decisions (CIDs) is as follows:


In the absence of a Commission Implementing Decision, installations should continue to have regard to BAT Reference Document and national Best Available Techniques Guidance notes available on the EPA website.