Climate change is challenging for Irish agriculture both in the context of greenhouse gas emissions and the need for adaptation of farming practices to be more resilient to the impacts of climate change. In Ireland the Agriculture sector was directly responsible for 38.0% of national Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions in 2021, mainly methane from livestock, and nitrous oxide due to the use of nitrogen fertiliser and manure management.

Note: These pages present final 1990-2021 Inventory data (updated April 2023) and the EPA's latest 2022-2030 projections estimates (updated June 2023) 

Agriculture was responsible for 38.0% of greenhouse gas emissions in Ireland in 2021


Current trends             

  • Greenhouse gas emissions increased 3.6% in 2021
  • Emissions up 20.6% in last ten years (2011-2021)
  • In 2021, 15.4% above 1990 levels


  • in 2021 increase in nitrogen fertilizer use (+5.2%) and liming (+49.5%) 
  • Dairy cow numbers up 2.8%
  • Milk production up 5.5%


Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture in 2021

Final EPA Inventory data shows that greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture in Ireland increased by 3.6% (or 0.82 Mt CO₂eq[1]) in 2021 following an increase in 2020 of 1.5% also.

Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture come from a variety of processes or activities. You can see more information about each of these in the table and pie chart below.

  • Table 1: Sources of emissions

    Open in Excel: Agriculture Activity types 2021 (XLS 11KB)

Agriculture activity trends

The most significant drivers for the increased emissions in 2021 were increased fertiliser use (+5.2%) and liming (+49.5%). The size of the dairy herd continued to increase, for the eleventh consecutive year (+2.8% in 2021), with a 5.5% increase in total national milk production.

From 2015 to 2021, dairy cow numbers increased by 22.6% and milk production increased by 36.9%. This reflects the national plans to expand milk production under Food Wise 2025 and the removal of the milk quota in 2015.

Other cattle numbers increased in 2021 by 0.3% and sheep numbers increased by 0.4%. In the last seven years (2015-2021), the numbers of other cattle have increased by 1.9%, while there have been increases in the numbers of sheep (+9.5%), pigs (+13.2%) and poultry (+12.7%).

Projected emissions

(Latest update June 2023)

Total emissions from agriculture are projected to decrease by 4% over the period 2021-2030 to 22.8 Mt CO2 eq under the With Existing Measures scenario.

Under the With Additional Measures scenario emissions are projected to decrease to approximately 19 Mt CO2 eq by 2030 which is an almost 20% reduction over the period 2021 to 2030. This scenario assumes the implementation of Ireland’s Climate Action Plan 2023 (with the exception of diversification measures in Table 16.6 in the Climate Action Plan 2023), measures in the Teagasc Marginal Abatement Cost Curve1. Emissions-in-Irish-Agriculture-2021-2030.pdf   

Sensitivity Scenarios

A sensitivity analysis of the With Existing Measures emissions scenario has been undertaken for the agriculture emissions projections based on alternative projected activity data scenarios provided by Teagasc. One alternative scenario is presented which looks at stronger growth in agricultural activity levels.

The resulting emissions are presented below alongside the WEM scenario, showing that stronger growth would likely lead to higher emissions over the projected period.