EPA waste data release 11 Dec. 2020. Latest reference year 2019.
A waste is hazardous when it can harm human health or the environment because it is explosive, oxidising, flammable, irritant, toxic, carcinogenic, corrosive, infectious, mutagenic, sensitising, or eco-toxic. Hazardous waste is controlled by strict regulations to protect against the threat to people and the environment.
Industry is the largest generator of hazardous wastes such as industrial solvents, sludges, oils and chemicals. Other sectors such as businesses, construction, healthcare, farms and households produce wastes such as lead-acid batteries, certain waste electrical and electronic equipment, healthcare risk waste, solvent-based paints and varnishes, and waste oils. All hazardous products are labelled with one or more of the symbols pictured above.
A total of 580,977 tonnes of hazardous waste were managed in Ireland in 2019, see Figure 3. This was an increase of over 54,580 tonnes since 2018.
In 2019, approximately 80% of the 580,977 tonnes of hazardous waste generated was from industry, 18% was from the construction sector and two percent was from municipal sources, such as households, small businesses, educational facilities etc.
Table 1, below, details the top categories of hazardous waste generated. The top four categories that made up 61% of hazardous waste generated in 2019 were:
Healthcare risk waste was the 11th largest contributor to hazardous waste (12,091 tonnes); it is expected that the Covid-19 pandemic will result in higher quantities of this type of waste in 2020.
|EWC Waste Categoryt||Tonnes|
|12.81 Waste from waste treatment 2||152,635|
|03.13 Chemical reaction residues||65,509|
|01.12 Non-halogenated spent solvents||46,813|
|08.23 Other discarded electrical and electronic equipment||32,459|
|03.12 Oils/water emulsions sludges||21,622|
|01.31 Used motor oils||21,460|
|12.41 Waste from flue gas purification||19,265|
|03.31 Sludges and liquid wastes from waste treatment||17,508|
|12.31 Waste of naturally occurring minerals||16,224|
|05.11 Human infectious health care wastes ||12,019|
Hazardous waste must be treated to reduce its potential to pollute the environment or to threaten human health. Ireland’s hazardous waste is treated either on-site at the industrial facility where the waste was generated (under conditions of EPA licence), offsite at hazardous waste treatment facilities in Ireland, or at facilities in other countries.
EPA licensed industrial facilities at 15 locations fully treated 55,282 tonnes of hazardous waste in 2019 under EPA licence conditions. Figure 4 shows the range of disposal and recovery activities used. Approximately 40,000 tonnes of this went for disposal and almost 15,000 was recovered.
Hazardous waste treated on-site increased by approximately 25,000 tonnes in 2019. This was due to 15,000 tonnes of contaminated soil from Limerick Gas Works that was treated and deposited back on land and 10,000 tonnes of dredging spoil at Dublin Port that was remediated and recovered.
Irish hazardous waste treatment facilities treated 146,309 tonnes of hazardous waste to non-hazardous status in 2019, an increase of 30% on the previous year. Waste types treated included contaminated soils, used motor oil, healthcare wastes, sludges, filter cakes, absorbents, laboratory and chemical waste and household hazardous waste from civic amenity sites. This waste is treated until it is non-hazardous; the non-hazardous wastes that result are then further treated either in Ireland or abroad.
Ireland does not have the facilities required to treat the full range of hazardous wastes it produces. The majority (65%) of Ireland’s hazardous waste was exported for treatment in other European countries for treatment in 2019 (compared with 73% in 2018).
Figure 5 below shows the countries that accepted this waste for treatment. The Netherlands, Norway, Great Britain, Belgium, Germany, Northern Ireland, France and Portugal together accepted 98% of hazardous waste exports in 2019. The spike in waste sent to the Netherlands in 2018 has continued in 2019 and this is due to the approximately 100,000 tonnes annually of ash from municipal waste incinerators. In April 2020 incinerator bottom ash from the Dublin Waste to Energy facility was classified as non-hazardous waste following testing and therefore a decrease in the order of 80,000 tonnes in the hazardous waste figures can be expected in 2020.
Exports of contaminated soil fell for a second year in 2019 to just over 46,000 tonnes. The majority of this is exported to Norway, 38,560 tonnes. Contaminated soils come from old industrial sites such as gas works, mines, tanneries, dock yards, petrol stations, etc. which are often contaminated with hazardous chemicals. Contaminated soils must be removed before the site can be used again.
In 2019 the total amount of contaminated soil generated in Ireland was just over 90,000 tonnes a decrease of 3,000 tonnes from 2018, as shown in Figure 6 below. Treatment in Ireland almost equalled treatment abroad in 2019 due to an increase to 29,000 tonnes treated at Irish hazardous waste treatment facilities and over 15,000 tonnes of contaminated soil treated onsite at Limerick Gas Works.
Table 2. Hazardous waste management in Ireland, 2009 to 2019
|Irish hazardous waste treatment facilities - hazardous waste excl. soils (t)||89,992||93,049||99,513||89,135||87,690||91,000||94,000||69,791||86,909||93,635||117,246|
|Irish hazardous waste treatment facilities - contamintaed soils (t)||12,428||6,260||7,094||4,426||4,830||1,630||5,938||682||608||18,733||29,063|
|On site treatment at licensed industrial facilities - hazardous waste excl. soils (t)||74,668||76,655||67,772||68,100||64,752||88,000||66,500||36,253||34,114||30,127||55,282|
|Exports - hazardous waste excl. soils (t)||150,395||143,180||149,037||144,241||151,980||141,000||166,000||185,801||213,089||308,991||333,195|
|Exports - contaminated soils (t)||476||2,590||10,203||3,638||7,659||5,701||14,329||79,591||101,440||74,912||46,191|
Open in Excel: Hazardous Table 2. (XLS 10KB)
Table 3. Hazardous waste treatment at industrial facilities in 2019
|Recovery/disposal activity||Tonnes||Per cent|
|D1 - Landfill||16,224||29%|
|D13/D1 - Blending or mixing prior to deposit into or onto land (eg landfill, etc).||15,490||28%|
|D13/D10 - Blending or mixing prior to submission to Incineration||9,146||17%|
|D8 - Biological treatment||1,178||2%|
|D9 - Physico-chemical treatment||124||0%|
|R1 - Waste to Energy||1,133||2%|
|R2 - Solvent recovery||1,449||3%|
|R5 - Inorganic substance recovery||10,538||19%|
Open in Excel: Hazardous Table 3. (XLS 10KB)
Table 4. Hazardous waste exports (excluding soils)
|Year||Great Britain (t)||Netherlands (t)||Germany (t)||Belgium (t)||Northern Ireland (t)||France (t)||Norway (t)||Portugal (t)||Others (t)|
Open in Excel: Hazardous Table 4. (XLS 11KB)
Table 5. Treatment of Contaminated Soils, 2009 to 2019
|Contaminated soil: Exported for treatment NTFSO||476||2,590||10,203||3,638||7,659||5,701||14,329||79,591||101,440||74,912||46,191|
|Contaminated soil: Treated in Ireland ( waste & non-waste facilities)||12,428||6,260||7,094||4,426||4,830||1,630||5,938||682||608||18,733||44,423|
Open in Excel: Hazardous Table 5. (XLS 10KB)
As part of annual reporting under the Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements and the disposal of hazardous waste, the EPA submits hazardous waste statistics for Ireland to the Department of Environment, Climate and Communications for transmission to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Union. The data are required to be submitted by 31st December of the reference year +1 (i.e. 2019 data were collected and processed in 2020 and submitted to Eurostat by 31st December 2020). Following validation by Eurostat, official statistics for Ireland and all Member States are published on the Eurostat website as part of the following dataset: